How Internet Works ? Who actually owns Internet ..?

As you are currently reading this post, I am pretty much sure you are one of Uncountable Users of Internet. But Most of you will not be aware about How Internet Works and who actually owns it. 





Today the Internet is the most powerful tool in the world because it is a collection of various services and resources. As a matter of formality, let me tell you the definition of Internet because its important to know before we dive into the explanation part.

When searched on Google for definition of Internet, it said Internet is “A global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.”

Well lets just not get into the technicalities in depth and focus on how exactly it works. Don’t worry, Ill get back over the definition and origin of Internet in another post. Make sure you subscribe to push notifications for latest update. (Go to Homepage and click on the Bell Icon on Bottom Left)

I’m sure you have been using Internet for over a long period no matter if you use a mobile device over 2G, 3G, 4G or a broadband connection or Wifi connection. Did you ever wonder how the internet reached you and whether it will get extinguished one day. Here I am to enlighten the mystery.

As the definition says, “Internet is a global network of interconnected networks”. Lets focus on this part of definition.

How Internet WorksLets say you have a Desktop and your friend has a Laptop and you connect both the devices using a LAN Cable. Now here the 2 devices being connected form a Network. Suppose your another friend has a desktop at his place. You connect that desktop to your existing network thus forming network of interconnected networks. CONGRATULATIONS !!! You own the Internet because you created a network of interconnected networks. Yes that’s true, thats exactly what Internet is. Lets get deep into it.



Factually, no one owns the Internet. There are organizations that determine the Internet’s structure and how it works. Such organizations are the Tier 1, Tier 2 & Tier 3 Companies who play different roles in making it possible for Internet to be made available throughout the Globe.



How Internet WorksSo basically the Internet globally functions solely with the help of Fiber Optic Cables that are deployed under the sea all over the world by Tier 1 Companies (ISPs) who take the responsibility of deployment and maintenance of such cables. To avoid breakdowns, the Tier 1 Companies across the world set up multiple cables where the other cables serves as a backup. There are many Tier 1 Companies in the world who help connect the World together. In India, the only Tier 1 ISP is Tata Communications India Limited. It has deployed under water cables and laid down a foundation stone in making Internet available in India. Lets understand that if Internet is free then why do we have to pay for availing the services.



How Internet WorksWell, the Internet in itself is actually free. Our example above made it clear when you along with your friend setup a network and created your own Internet. The Tier 1 Companies setup Cables into the sea and hence they have to incur huge amount for the cost of cables and recurring maintenance to prevent breakdowns. They help connect various networks in various countries and continents using their cables. Now the Tier 2 Companies come into the scene where they purchase the connections from the Tier 1 Companies and make it available largely within the Country. They are the ISPs who take care of the Internet Backend and solve Technical Aspects related to Internet. Airtel & Vodafone are examples of Tier 2 Companies. The Tier 3 Companies are Local ISPs who actually make internet available to you with physical installation and maintenance. Hathway and Tikona are examples of Tier 3 Companies.



As earlier decided, we will be getting into the Technicalities of Internet in our future blog post. But let me just explain you with one simple example that how Internet functions practically.

Suppose you are in Mumbai and you are browsing through the Internet. You enter in your browser. Now your browser takes the request from the Client (You) and the request passes through the Cables both inland as well as submarine cables to the Data Centre of Google in USA where the Google Server will respond to the Client Request and serve the requested data through the same line again to the Client (in this case your Browser) and due to this you are able to see the Google Website.

How Internet WorksThis whole process is executed within a matter of few seconds because the Fiber Optic cables are really super fast and are capable to process data in Terabytes and has a capacity to transfer data at a speed of 1 GB/s. The speed when used by a normal Internet User is way far less than the capacity of the Cables. Internet when reaches to the final user has regulated low speed since limited connection is purchased by Tier 3 and Tier 2 Companies and the same is to be passed on to uncountable users who use Internet. Now you would wonder that why sometimes you get less speed than that promised by your ISP. Lets dive into this part.



Sometimes we face problems while surfing on Internet. You may observe that you are having speed or connectivity problems like low speed. Tier 3 Companies offer Internet as Various Plans to its customers. Suppose you have opted for 2 MBPS Plan. Generally you should have download speed of 2 MBPS as promised but sometimes you may receive low download speed. This is because for a particular area or data center, the amount of data to be transferred (Bandwidth) is limited or restricted to certain amount. Say that in your area that maximum bandwidth allotted is 100 MBPS. Now if there are large number of users in your area, the transmission of data may get overloaded and the bandwidth may get exceeded resulting in proportionate distribution and hence you receive less than you actually should have got.

The best way to actually understand this is that during day time you may experience low speed whereas during night time you may enjoy high speed. The very genuine reason being that during day time there are large number of users who surf the internet. This gets the bandwidth exceeded and hence speed is proportionately distributed. During night time the number of users are comparatively less and hence the bandwidth is normal giving proper speed.



To wind up this knowledgeable session, i have hereby accumulated some takeaways from this post for you to remember.

  • Internet works with the help of Interconnected Networks Globally with the help of Fiber Optic Cables deployed under water by Tier 1 Companies.
  • No one owns Internet. There are organizations like Tier 1, Tier 2 & Tier 3 Companies who decide the structure of Internet and how it works.
  • Internet is forever free. The price you pay is used by Tier 3 Companies to purchase Connections from Tier 2 Companies who ultimately buy it from Tier 1 Companies. Tier 1 Companies use these funds to maintain the under water Submarine cable network.
  • Web Browser makes request to Server by transmitting data through these cables and the Server sends result back to Client.

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